- Large (or even continental) LNG infrastructure is mainly used by multinational energy companies or gas transmission system operators (TSOs). The main objective of the "large" LNG terminal is to provide a diversified source of natural gas to that EU Member State / region. The standard size of the LNG large capacity tanker is 120,000-135,000 m³ of LNG (75-85 million m plynu of gas).
- LNG high-capacity terminals are located on the coast, in inland waters or as floating devices (FSRUs) that allow LNG to be tanked.
This type of natural gas supply is not possible for inland countries, as transhipment costs and ancillary technology have an impact on the price of gas traded on the market.
- The output of the terminal is dominated by the conversion of LNG to gas and subsequent transport and distribution through the new entry point to the pipeline network. Relatively small amounts of LNG are used to re-export LNG from the terminal and to transport LNG.
- EU regulators as well as the governments of the Member States are key decision-makers in this area.
- Small or application solutions for LNG supply are predominantly in the natural gas retail sector. The main objective of the small LNG is to bring natural gas ("to the yard") to the final small and medium-sized consumer, in locations with missing or inappropriate pipeline gas infrastructure applications, such as
- i) Mobile gas source for the development of small urban gas networks,
- ii) alternative source of supply for gas pipeline repairs and disaster, or
- iii) back-up power supply for industrial use and peak-to-peak coverage
- iv) temporary gas source for the gas supply season (agrosector, food industry)
- Heavy traffic is another application of small LNG infrastructures, as there has been a rapid development of LNG combustion engines over the last ten years.
- In 2013, Volvo Trucks introduced its D13-LNG prototype engine, the first integrated gas solution for the North American market.
- In 2014, Iveco introduced the heavy duty Starlis LNG truck available for Europe.
- Scania introduced its product with LNG-powered tractors in the category in 2016.
Almost all heavy goods vehicles and public bus manufacturers are developing LNG-driven products and expect demand to grow.